August 08, 2000

Women Combat Aviators of the Patriotic War

Women Combat Aviators of the Patriotic War

In 1939, the Soviet Union signed a Non-agression Pact with Nazi Germany. The Soviet's stayed out of Germany's successful invasion of Poland and, as a result, were given a piece of the prize land. In fact, the Soviets upheld their pact with Germany for two years. On June 22, 1941, despite warnings from his top military advisors and some 500 violations of Soviet airspace by Nazi reconnaissance aircraft, Stalin and the Soviet people were taken completely by surprise. Nazi Germany attacked Russia from the west and south where Soviet airfields were not able to handle the larger, modern fighter aircraft and planes were exposed and vulnerable. The German attack and attempt to conquer Russia was/is known as Operation Barbarossa and was supposed to last only 10 weeks.

The reaction in the Soviet Union to this treaty breaking attack by Germany was much the same as in the U.S. after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor later that same year. Everyone was angered by this attack on their Rodina (Motherland). The Soviet Air Force had to be rebuilt and there was no shortage of volunteers; men and women alike. During the first two decades of the Soviet era, there were a number of military flying clubs known as Osoaviakhim. Girls were welcome to join these clubs along with boys. They learned at a young age how to parachute and fly gliders. As a result, the typical 17 year old flying club student had more flying experience than the Soviet Air Force pilots at the front.

Despite their experience and enthusiasm, when these young women presented themselves at the recruiting offices, they were turned away. They were told that the Rodina was not in so bad a shape that she needed girls to protect her. These future heroes were sent home to their mothers. The Nazi invasion was so swift and intense that it did not take long for Soviet officials to reverse their position and these young women were asked to serve. Their training took place in Moscow at about the same time young American women were training in Sweetwater, Texas. One important difference existed: the Soviet women, like their American counterparts, came from all over their country. However, in route to their training by train, Soviet women saw first-hand the enemy's destruction of their homeland. In fact, the Luftwaffe routinely attacked these trains which also carried soldiers headed for the front.

Three all volunteer female air force regiments were formed in 1942. Each regiment had three squadrons of 10 planes each and included some 400 women. Not only were the pilots women, so were the mechanics and other ground support personnel. The three regiments were the:

  • 586th Women's Fighter Regiment (initially equipped with Yakovlyev YaK-1s and later YaK-7Bs; stationed at Saratov, on the Volga River north of Stalingrad)

    The 586th was first women's regiment to go to the front. Their commander was Tamara Kazarinova and they racked up an impressive 4,419 sorties and 38 kills. The 586th's primary mission was to force back enemy bomber and not allow them to reach their targets. One of the squadron commanders, Olga Yamshchikova, logged 93 sorties and was credited with three kills. She went on to become the first Soviet woman jet test pilot. Fighter aces, Lilya Litvyak and Ekaterina Budanova, both members of the 586th, joined the all male 73rd Fighter Regiment and fought in the battles over Stalingrad.

    The 586th fought in over 125 air battles and a majority of the pilots logged roughly 1,000 mission each. On July 5, 1943, they took part in the decisive Battle of Kursk. The highlight of the 586th's service was to take part in the last attack on Berlin in 1945.
  • 587th Women's Day Bomber Regiment (flying Petlyakov Pe-2 2-engined bombers with a 3 person crew including a pilot, navigator, and radio operator/gunner)
    The 587th did not see combat until January 1943. Initially, the women trained in the SU-2, a 2 person craft. Then, they were switched to the 3 person crew PE-2 aircraft and re-training had to take place before they could be put into active duty. Eventually, men were included in this regiment.
  • 588th Women's Night Bomber Regiment, the famous "Night Witches" (flying Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes)
    The 588th received the honor of the 46th Guards Bomber Aviation Regiment, making them the first all female regiment to receive this distinction. This group reported to the southern front in May 1942, flew 24,000 sorties, unloaded 23,000 tons of bombs and was commanded by Yevdokia Bershanskaya. Several of the members of the 588th became Heroes of the Soviet Union. This unit was totally female during the war.

Thousands of other women served alongside male counterparts in various units of the Soviet Air Force. In 1944, roughly 3,000 women were a part of the Far East 10th Air Army, another ca. 440 were serving with the 4th Air Army of the 2nd Belorussian and the 46th Guards Women Air Regiment with its 237 female officers, over 850 sergeants and some 1,100 enlisted women.

These women were fighter and bomber pilots, gunners, mechanics and armament fitters. They logged some impressive statistics. For example, the women of the 586th recorded a total of 4,419 sorties per pilot and took part in over 120 air battles. Understandably, the male aviation members initially resented their new female counterparts. It was considered bad luck to fly with a female wingman or in a plane that had been maintained by a female mechanic. However, the women proved their ability and courage and were seen as valuable, if not essential, element of the Soviet Air Force. The women were not ignored by their government, either. Countless were given orders and medals, 29 received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and 23 became a part of the Night Witches.

Soviet women pilots had already set records. In 1938, Marina Raskova and two other women flew non-stop from Moscow to Komsomolsk-on-Amur, some 63,672 miles in 26 hours, 29 minutes. Raskova, the navigator, bailed out over Siberia in order to lighten the twin-engine craft's load which had been increased by icing. The plane, named Rodina, and other two women made it safely to their destination. Raskova was rescue by a local hunter and all three women returned to a heroes' welcome in Moscow. They became known as the Winged Sisters. Raskova received the title Hero of the Soviet Union and went on to become a Major and the commander of training for women aviators. She was killed in action and is buried in the Kremlin Wall.

Training of the new female aviation recruits began in October, 1941. They gathered at Engels north of Stalingrad where their first order of business was to alter men's uniforms to fit their size and shape. These women, many of them not more than girls, trained 14 hours a day for six months in Polikarpov PO-2 wood and cloth biplanes. This was roughly equal to two years of peace time flight school. Major Yevdokia Bershanskaya was the second in command at Engels. While they were training, the Nazis penetrated deeper into Soviet territory, routinely bombing Moscow.

Possibly one of the most distressing requirements of military life for the women aviators had to do with hair. In many of the cultures that made up the Soviet Union, long, beautiful hair was a thing of great pride. Many of the women had never had their hair cut and their braids reached to below their waists. To make them look more like warriors and, possible for practical safety reasons, the women were ordered to cut their hair to a length of no more than two inches. As the women cut each others' long locks, it was both a time of considerable sadness and a sacrifice made willingly for their Rodina.

The women pilots soon proved their superior skills in combat. The first German bomber to be shot down by a woman pilot was the Junkers Ju-88 in September, 1942. The best women pilots began serving alongside their male counterparts.

One such female pilot was Lily Litvak, aka "White Rose of Stalingrad." Lily, like her name, was a beauty and adored flowers. She painted a white rose on each side of her cockpit and often carried flowers on board during her missions. Lily was so good at what she did that Nazi pilots would, reportedly, stay clear of her sights when they saw the YAK with the white roses coming their way. In her first year of combat service, Lily was shot down three times and made 12 kills. At age 22 and in July 1943, Lily was engaged by eight Nazi fighters. They managed to shoot her down and kill her. Lily and her plane have not been found.

In all, Soviet women pilots completed over 24,000 sorties and 68 of their number received the Gold Star, Hero of the Soviet Union award. They never carried parachutes and agreed that, if captured, they would shoot themselves.

Soviet women aviators played a crucial role in the defense of their homeland and the victory over Nazi Germany. After the Patriotic War, these heroes returned to their country's farms and factories. Many married fellow pilots or soldiers. Like the men, they returned to heavy losses of family, friends and homes. At the beginning of the Patriotic War, Soviet officials questioned the wisdom of sending women into combat situations. These women proved that they were more than up to the task at hand.

Today, you can see these women, easily in their 70's and beyond, wearing their uniforms and numerous medals in the annual May Day parade in Moscow. Most live on a humble pension but this does not lessen their pride, the significance of their service or the gratitude of their homeland.

Even if we were to place at your feet all the flowers of the earth, they would not be a big enough tribute to your valor.
Marina Raskova and Soviet Female Pilots
Anna A. Timofyeyevna Yegorova
Valeria Ivanovna Khomyakova
Lilya Vladimirovna Litvyak Klavdia Nechayeva
Katya Budanova Yekaterina Zelyenko
Like this post? Get a weekly email digest + member-only deals

Some of Our Books

Steppe / Степь

Steppe / Степь

This is the work that made Chekhov, launching his career as a writer and playwright of national and international renown. Retranslated and updated, this new bilingual edition is a super way to improve your Russian.
Moscow and Muscovites

Moscow and Muscovites

Vladimir Gilyarovsky's classic portrait of the Russian capital is one of Russians’ most beloved books. Yet it has never before been translated into English. Until now! It is a spectactular verbal pastiche: conversation, from gutter gibberish to the drawing room; oratory, from illiterates to aristocrats; prose, from boilerplate to Tolstoy; poetry, from earthy humor to Pushkin. 
Marooned in Moscow

Marooned in Moscow

This gripping autobiography plays out against the backdrop of Russia's bloody Civil War, and was one of the first Western eyewitness accounts of life in post-revolutionary Russia. Marooned in Moscow provides a fascinating account of one woman's entry into war-torn Russia in early 1920, first-person impressions of many in the top Soviet leadership, and accounts of the author's increasingly dangerous work as a journalist and spy, to say nothing of her work on behalf of prisoners, her two arrests, and her eventual ten-month-long imprisonment, including in the infamous Lubyanka prison. It is a veritable encyclopedia of life in Russia in the early 1920s.
93 Untranslatable Russian Words

93 Untranslatable Russian Words

Every language has concepts, ideas, words and idioms that are nearly impossible to translate into another language. This book looks at nearly 100 such Russian words and offers paths to their understanding and translation by way of examples from literature and everyday life. Difficult to translate words and concepts are introduced with dictionary definitions, then elucidated with citations from literature, speech and prose, helping the student of Russian comprehend the word/concept in context.
Woe From Wit (bilingual)

Woe From Wit (bilingual)

One of the most famous works of Russian literature, the four-act comedy in verse Woe from Wit skewers staid, nineteenth century Russian society, and it positively teems with “winged phrases” that are essential colloquialisms for students of Russian and Russian culture.
The Moscow Eccentric

The Moscow Eccentric

Advance reviewers are calling this new translation "a coup" and "a remarkable achievement." This rediscovered gem of a novel by one of Russia's finest writers explores some of the thorniest issues of the early twentieth century.
Fearful Majesty

Fearful Majesty

This acclaimed biography of one of Russia’s most important and tyrannical rulers is not only a rich, readable biography, it is also surprisingly timely, revealing how many of the issues Russia faces today have their roots in Ivan’s reign.
Faith & Humor: Notes from Muscovy

Faith & Humor: Notes from Muscovy

A book that dares to explore the humanity of priests and pilgrims, saints and sinners, Faith & Humor has been both a runaway bestseller in Russia and the focus of heated controversy – as often happens when a thoughtful writer takes on sacred cows. The stories, aphorisms, anecdotes, dialogues and adventures in this volume comprise an encyclopedia of modern Russian Orthodoxy, and thereby of Russian life.

About Us

Russian Life is a publication of a 30-year-young, award-winning publishing house that creates a bimonthly magazine, books, maps, and other products for Russophiles the world over.

Latest Posts

Our Contacts

Russian Life
PO Box 567
Montpelier VT 05601-0567